There are many networking protocols in the market for home automation. Some are wired connections, some are wireless and some are made by combining the first two types. Every feature has some good sides and weak sides as well. The oldest automation solution is the X10, which follows both the wired and radio communication system.
Universal Powerline Bus is based on power line wiring. The wiring connection helps to transmit or control the signal. Its reliability rate is higher than X10
It is applicable for both wireless and wired connections. It is a very easy system to operate even for the beginners. It is compatible with the X10 network.
The Z-Wave is a purely wireless technology for home automation. It is said to be a standard wireless network for the smart homes. Radio waves with low energy are used to communicate or operate the system fully. The operating range is normally 90 meters for outdoor and 24 meters for indoors.
This wireless technology has low data rate and low power. It can transmit data normally from 10 to 100 meters. For a very long distance there has to be a mesh network to transmit the data. So, it is still not gain much acceptance.
The latest and popular technology is the Wi-Fi technology, which is being accepted widely by the designers and the consumers. If you already have an existing network, then all you need to do is install the required equipments to start the automation.
Bluetooth has a very limited application work for short distances. Light bulbs, smart doors or windows lock system can be control with that.